[94] Tojo was the Prime Minister, Minister of War and Chief of the Army General Staff, and was seen both in Japan and in the US as, in words of Willmott, "the embodiment of national determination, hardline nationalism and militarism". [86], On March 12, 1944, the Japanese launched the U-Go offensive and invaded India. [10] In 1909, Hideki married Katsuko Ito, with whom he had three sons (Hidetake, Teruo, and Toshio) and four daughters (Mitsue, Makie, Sachie and Kimie). [93] As the news of the disastrous defeat suffered at Saipan reached Japan, it turned elite opinion against the Tojo government. [8] In 1899, Tojo enrolled in the Army Cadet School. "[43] During the last cabinet meetings of the Konoe government, Tojo emerged as a hawkish voice, saying he did not want a war with the United States but portrayed the Americans as arrogant, bullying white supremacists. [120], In the Japanese 1998 film Pride, Tojo was portrayed as a national hero, forced against his will by the Hull note into attacking America and executed after a rigged trial, a picture of Tojo that is widely accepted in Japan while giving offense abroad, especially China.[121]. Tojo received Jewish refugees in accordance with Japanese national policy and rejected the resulting Nazi German protests. [88] Despite the Japanese Pan-Asian rhetoric and claim to be liberating India, the Indian people did not revolt and the Indian soldiers of the 14th Army stayed loyal to their British officers, and the invasion of India ended in complete disaster. In spite of its formal recognition of the Vichy government, the United States retaliated against Japan by imposing economic sanctions in August, including a total embargo on oil and gasoline exports. From then on, the Allied forces slowly won back the territories occupied by Japan. On November 2, Tojo and Chiefs of Staff Hajime Sugiyama and Osami Nagano reported to Hirohito that the review had been in vain. Tojo was tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East for war crimes and found guilty of, among other actions,[102] waging wars of aggression; war in violation of international law; unprovoked or aggressive war against various nations; and ordering, authorizing, and permitting inhumane treatment of prisoners of war. Tojo's second son, Teruo Tojo, who designed fighter and passenger aircraft during and after the war, eventually served as an executive at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. The Greater East Asia War was justified and righteous. One cannot recite arguments to the Emperor. [62] The dispute was resolved by the Emperor who commuted the death sentences of five fliers while allowing the other three to die, for reasons that remain unclear as the documents relating to the Emperor's intervention were burned in 1945.[62]. As a result of this experience, the Army had medical personnel present during the later arrests of other accused Japanese war criminals, such as Shigetarō Shimada. [57] The "Hull note" as it is known in Japan made it clear the United States would not recognise the puppet government of Wang Jingwei as the government of China, but strongly implied that the United States might recognise the "Empire of Manchukuo"[opinion] and did not impose a deadline for the Japanese withdrawal from China. [27] In September 1935, Tojo assumed top command of the Kenpeitai of the Kwantung Army in Manchuria. [49], After being informed of Tojo's appointment, Prince Takamatsu wrote in his diary: "We have finally committed to war and now must do all we can to launch it powerfully. There is contentious debate among scholars about why Japan surrendered in World War II. [74] To strengthen his position in face of criticism of the way the war was going, on February 21, 1944, Tojo assumed the post of Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff, arguing he needed to take personal charge of the Army. [92] With Saipan in American hands, the Americans could take other islands in the Marianas to build airbases. But as we go into 1942, the United States has just entered into World War II. Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. [39] Tojo was a militant ultra-nationalist, well respected for his work ethic and his ability to handle paperwork, who believed that the Emperor was a living god and favored "direct imperial rule", ensuring that he would faithfully follow any order from the Emperor. Anything I have achieved I owe to my capacity for hard work and never giving up". [18] Tojo wrote with bitterness at the time that American whites would never accept Asians as equals and "It [the Immigration Control Act] shows how the strong will always put their own interests first. [97] As the Emperor was worshiped as a living god, neither Yonai and Koiso could ask him who was to be the Prime Minister, as one does not ask questions of a god, and after the meeting, both men were very confused as to which of the two was now the Prime Minister. The Japanese made gaining and maintaining control of the air as much a requirement in their basic war strategy as they did the destruction of the U.S. Pacific Fleet. Commander of the Combined Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was weary, saying on 14 October 1940: "To fight the United States is like fighting the whole world. Created by: Mariah Farris, Nicholas Meddin and Shelby Ziccardi, DaVinci Charter Academy. [111] In his final statement, he apologised for the atrocities committed by the Japanese military and urged the American military to show compassion toward the Japanese people, who had suffered devastating air attacks and the two atomic bombings. In August–September 1942, a major crisis gripped the Tojo cabinet when the Foreign Minister Shigenori Tōgō objected quite violently on August 29, 1942 to the Prime Minister's plan to establish a Greater East Asia Ministry to handle relations with the puppet regimes in Asia as an insult to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (the Gaimusho) and threatened to resign in protest. [56] The eventual plan drawn up by Army and Navy Chiefs of Staff envisaged such a mauling of the Western powers that Japanese defense perimeter lines—operating on interior lines of communications and inflicting heavy Western casualties—could not be breached. "[96] Tojo was more of a follower than a leader, and he represented mainstream opinion in the Army, and so his removal from office would not mean the end of the political ambitions of an Army still fanatically committed to victory or death. Following the purge, Tōseiha and Kōdōha elements were unified in their nationalist but highly anti-political stance under the banner of the Tōseiha military clique, which included Tojo as one of its leaders. [47] After being informed of his appointment, Tojo was given one order from the Emperor: to make a policy review of what had been sanctioned by the Imperial Conferences. To shade one's words in flattery to the point of untruthfulness would falsify the trial and do incalculable harm to the nation, and great care must be taken to avoid this. Five American GIs were sent to serve the arrest warrant. In March 1942, Tojo in his capacity as Army Minister gave permission for the Japanese Army in Taiwan to ship 50 "comfort women" from Taiwan to Borneo without ID papers (his approval was necessary as the Army's rules forbade people without ID traveling to the new conquests). [64] As the Burmese had proved to be enthusiastic collaborators in the "New Order in Asia", the new Burmese kingdom would be allowed to annex much of north-east India as a reward. [citation needed] Two days later, on November 5, Hirohito approved the operations plan for a war against the West and continued to hold meetings with the military and Tojo until the end of the month. [74] Moreover, Tojo believed that the Americans would become bogged down in the Marshalls, giving more time to strengthen the defenses in the Marianas. [84] Tojo's major concern as Army Chief of Staff was planning the operations in China and India, with less time given over to the coming battles in the Marianas. So Asia has been in conflict for some time. I mean to pay considerable attention to this in my actions, and say to the end that what is true is true and what is false is false. THESE are the startling pictures which show the horrific moment Japanese troops used British prisoners of war for target practice. In July 1937, he personally led the units of the 1st Independent Mixed Brigade in Operation Chahar, his only real combat experience. [70] In November 1942, Tojo, as Army Minister, was involved in drafting the regulations for taking "comfort women" from China, Japan (which included Taiwan and Korea at this time) and Manchukuo to the "South", as the Japanese called their conquests in South-East Asia, to ensure that the "comfort women" had the proper papers before departing. Find out more about the greatest Japanese Leaders, including Shinzō Abe, Akihito, Satoru Iwata, Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu. [24], Tojo was appointed commander of the IJA 24th Infantry Brigade in August 1934. [105][106][107][108][109] One source attributes 5 million civilian deaths to Tojo's rule of the military. Tojo was promoted to Chief of staff of the Kwangtung Army in 1937. He was at the center of founding Nazism, the start of World War II, and the Holocaust.In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married … Japan's avarice and military aggressiveness landed them a spot in the top 3 Axis power in 1936, but not with Japan's full consent. Tojo, in particular, should be made to bear all responsibility at this trial. [8] Tojo's boyhood hero was the 17th-century shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu who issued the injunction: "Avoid the things you like, turn your attention to unpleasant duties". The Empire of Japan entered World War II in September 27, 1940, by signing the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy, though, it wasn't until the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, that the US entered the conflict. Six of the most disturbing "experiments" conducted by Unit 731, the gruesome biological and chemical warfare research unit of the Imperial Japanese Army. Hirohito rejected this option, arguing that a member of the imperial family should not have to eventually carry the responsibility for a war against the West as a defeat would ruin the prestige of the House of Yamato. [89] The Japanese were defeated by the Anglo-Indian 14th Army at the Battles of Imphal and Kohima. [25] Tojo attacked Britain, France and the United States for waging "ideological war" against Japan since 1919. [74] By serving as Prime Minister, Army Minister and Army Chief of Staff, Tojo took on nearly all of the responsibility; if plans for victory in 1944 failed, he would have no scapegoat. [32] As chief of staff, Tojo was responsible for the military operations designed to increase Japanese penetration into the Inner Mongolia border regions with Manchukuo. [35] From December 1938 to 1940, Tojo was Inspector-General of Army Aviation. [100] The dentist ground away the message three months later.[101]. [26] Tojo ended his essay stating that Japan must stand tall "and spread its own moral principles to the world" as the "cultural and ideological war of the 'imperial way' is about to begin". It was Yamamoto who planned and executed the attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. For example, when Ishii received from Hirohito a communication saying the Army should drop the idea of stationing troops in China to counter the military operations of the Western powers, he wrote a reply for the Prime Minister for his audience with the Emperor. [39] Konoe favored having Germany mediate an end to the Sino-Japanese war, pressuring Britain to end its economic and military support of China even at the risk of war, seeking better relations with both Germany and the United States, and taking advantage of the changes in the international order caused by Germany's victories in the spring of 1940 to make Japan a stronger power in Asia. Tojo's commemorating tomb is located in a shrine in Hazu, Aichi (now Nishio, Aichi), and he is one of those enshrined at the controversial Yasukuni Shrine. [52] Despite vocally on the side of war, Tojo nevertheless accepted this order, and pledged to obey. Hideki Tojo Hideki Tojo was born in Tokyo and decided on a career in the army. [67] The Operations Bureaus of the Army and Navy would develop their own plans and then attempt to "sell them" to the other, which was often not possible. [citation needed] After negotiations with Vichy France, Japan was given permission to place its troops in the southern part of French Indochina in July 1941. Following Japan's surrender to the Allied Powers in September 1945, he was arrested, convicted by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in the Tokyo Trials, sentenced to death, and hanged on December 23, 1948. [44] Despite saying he favored peace, Tojo had often declared at cabinet meetings that any withdrawal from French Indochina and/or China would be damaging to military morale and might threaten the kokutai; the "China Incident" could not be resolved via diplomacy and required a military solution; and attempting to compromise with the Americans would be seen as weakness by them.[45]. [113], Historians Herbert P. Bix and John W. Dower criticize the work done by General MacArthur and his staff to exonerate Emperor Hirohito and all members of the imperial family from criminal prosecutions. An estimated 33,000 Japanese Americans served in the military during and immediately after World War II, about 18,000 in the 442nd and 6,000 as part of the MIS. As matters stand now we can merely keep silent and without the least effort war will begin. [19] Tojo often visited the homes of the men under his command, assisted his men with personal problems and made loans to officers short of money. I think the forthcoming trials offer the best opportunity to do that. [37] Kido had aided in the creation in the 1930s of an alliance between the "reform bureaucrats" and the Army's "Control" faction centered around Tojo and General Mutō Akira. [90], In parallel with the invasion of India, in April 1944 Tojo began Operation Ichigo, the largest Japanese offensive of the entire war, with the aim of taking southern China. In a 1997 survey of university students in China asking "When somebody talks about Japanese people, what person do you think of? As the Japanese went from victory to victory, Tojo and the rest of the Japanese elite were gripped by what the Japanese called "victory disease" as the entire elite was caught up in a state of hubris, believing Japan was invincible and the war was as good as won. [84] This breach of the "absolute defense line", five months after its creation, led Tojo to fire Admiral Osami Nagano as the Navy Chief of Staff, for incompetence. [61] On April 18, 1942, the Americans staged the Doolittle Raid, bombing Tokyo. [62] The Army General Staff led by Field Marshal Hajime Sugiyama insisted on executing the eight American fliers, but were opposed by Tojo, who feared that the Americans would retaliate against Japanese POWs if the Doolittle fliers were executed. The Emperor then gave his consent to war. [58] On December 1, another conference finally sanctioned the "war against the United States, England, and the Netherlands".[59]. 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