Treatment typically involves the use of prescription antibiotics. Bacterial lung infection may involve just one small section of your lung, or it may encompass your entire lung. Infiltrates can be pus, blood, or protein-rich fluid. Lower respiratory infection symptoms include a severe cough that may produce mucus (phlegm), cause shortness of breath, chest tightness, and wheezing when exhaling. APHA [American Public Health Association] Press; 2000. MAC encompasses three mycobacterial species known as M. avium,M. This can be done by chest x-ray and blood test. Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of your lungs caused by certain bacteria. 2013;187:197.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23144328, Lim J, Lvu J, Choi CM. It is best to avoid sick individuals when possible, practice thorough hand washing and follow vaccination recommendations from a medical doctor. Although rare, bac… chest x-ray) and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans can be used to examine the lungs. Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease is caused by infection with specific bacterial germs known as mycobacteria. A bacterial infection can also spread throughout the blood, causing a condition described as sepsis. Multidiscip Respir Med. 2007) outlining the diagnostic criteria for pulmonary NTM infection. Common types of bacterial lung infections include pneumonia and tuberculosis, states WebMD. rare lung infections. During this procedure, a physician can also obtain a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), which is a deeper fluid sample from the alveoli (lung sacs) for examination. Mycobacterium avium complex, also called MAC, is a group of bacteria that can cause life-threatening infections in people with severely compromised immune systems. Difficulty in breathing or a cough lasting more than three weeks needs to be investigated by a health care professional. Chronic lung infection is the most common complication affecting approximately 94% of individuals. 2007) include detailed treatment recommendations for individuals with NTM infections. Abnormalities in airway defenses or the ability of the airways to clear out normal secretions can lead to lung disease in individuals infected with NTM. Pneumonia happens when bacteria, viruses, and less commonly fungi collect in a person's air sacs and begin to grow. You can experience generalized symptoms, such as fevers, chills, and fatigue as a result of a bacterial infection anywhere in the body. The incidence and prevalence rates reported in the medical literature varies and because many cases may go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed determining the true frequency of NTM infections in the general population is difficult. Depends: Bacterial lung infections tend to be easier to treat than fungal lung infections. Eur J Intern Med. If a decision is made not to treat, then an affected individual should be closely monitored to promptly detect any progression of the infection. Therapy with tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist drugs, such as is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, is also a risk factor for NTM infection. The most common one is Streptococcus (pneumococcus), but other bacteria can … Thorax 2017;72:ii1–ii64. Individuals with the cavitary form of infection are often prior smokers with underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or have pre-existing structural lung disease such as bronchiectasis. Some of bacterial infections are extremely dangerous and can be lethal. Prior to the discovery of antibiotics, severe bacterial infections were one of the major causes of human deaths throughout the developed world. Bacteria that cause pneumonia and bronchitis spread through germs that travel through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes or has direct contact with other people (4). During bronchoscopy, a thin, flexible tube (bronchoscope) is inserted through the nose or mouth, allowing a physician to examine the throat, larynx, trachea and lower airways. 2017;8:1041. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01041, Chughtai M, Gwam CU, Mohamed N, et al. Symptoms of Bacterial Lung Infection. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. J Clin Med Res. Colle… MAC encompasses three mycobacterial species known as M. avium,M. A diagnosis of NTM includes ruling out other diseases such as tuberculosis or lung cancer. 2017;12:26. doi:10.1186/s40248-017-0106-3, Principi N, Esposito S. Prevention of community-acquired pneumonia with available Pneumococcal vaccines. The criteria used are a best fit for infection with Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium abscessus. 2018 Apr;31(2):199-207. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29346118, Haworth CS, Banks J, Capstick T, et al. Bacterial infections can be acquired in several different ways, depending on the type of infection. Glanders. The lung is exposed to enormous quantities of air and to potentially infectious agents, but serious infections rarely occur, a testament to the extraordinary natural defences of the respiratory tract. Sputum is a thick fluid produced within the lungs and breathing passageways of the respiratory tract, usually in response to infection or inflammation. A sputum culture can be obtained directly from affected individuals by having them cough up a sample. Pathogens that cause such infections can spread to others through physical contact, especially through inhalation of respiratory secretions. Two main theories exist to explain individual susceptibility to NTM infection. Nodular bronchiectasis predominantly affects older women of Caucasian or Asian descent without a history of lung disease. In hypersensitivity pneumonitis cough, fever and shortness of breath are the most common symptoms. The information in NORD’s Rare Disease Database is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of a physician or other qualified medical professional. 2017;9(6):466–475. Various techniques that help to expel mucus from the lungs may be recommended for affected individuals. Clin Chest Med. Bacterial and viral infections have many things in common. People who are risk for pneumonia and bronchitis include: Bacteria that cause pneumonia and bronchitis spread through germs that travel through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes or has direct contact with other people (4). Such techniques include sterile, extra-salty water delivered as a mist (nebulized hypertonic saline), physical therapy of the chest, devices that loosen mucus in the airways (flutter devices, high frequency chest wall oscillation), a specific way of coughing that helps bring up mucus (huff cough), and aerobic exercise. A diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease is based upon identification of characteristic symptoms, a detailed patient history, a thorough clinical evaluation and a variety of specialized tests. An infection can be widespread (disseminated) throughout the body and, without proper treatment, can prove fatal. Vaccines have been developed that can help prevent bacterial pneumonia. What Are the Most Contagious Diseases in Nursing Homes That Cause Diarrhea? Collectively, these species account for approximately half of all mycobacterial infections. NORD has more information on some of these disorders (use the specific disorder name, as your search term in the Rare Disease Database). Other symptoms such as fever, drowsiness, and seizures may occur. These risks must be weighed against the potential benefits for each individual based upon the severity of their disease and specific symptoms that are present. Please note that NORD provides this information for the benefit of the rare disease community. The most common cause of community acquired pneumonia is streptococcus, although less common types can be responsible (2, 4). A complication of pneumonia is empyema, where the lungs fill with pus. The symptoms and severity can vary greatly from one person to another. Symptoms of bacterial pneumonia are generally similar for all types and may include: A slight fever can occur as opposed to the high temperatures seen with the flu (3, 4). In terms of viral infections, cytomegalovirus infections occur most frequently 4 to 6 weeks after OLT, whereas Pneumocystis carinii infections occur 8 to 12 weeks after OLT (Carton et al, 1994a, 1994b). J Thorac Dis. However, there are infections that are a number of lung infections that are difficult to get rid of, which may be because of the nature of the infecting agent itself, or may be influenced by other patient factors such as poor health and immune deficiency. Copyright © 2021 Leaf Group Ltd., all rights reserved. Rush University Medical Center: Tips for Keeping Your Lungs Healthy. They can be caused by viral infections like the severe flu or bacterial infections like tuberculosis. ISBN 978-0-87553-189-2; Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Doctors look for signs like increased heart rate, wheezing or crackles, abnormal breathing and other typical signs of pneumonia. Patients with nontuberculus mycobacterial lung disease exhibit unique body and immune phenotypes. When bits of food or fluid get sucked into the lungs in what is known as aspiration, areas of dying tissue, or abscesses, can develop after a few weeks (4). T These bacteria are found in many places including water (fresh or salt), household dust, and soil. http://thorax.bmj.com/content/thoraxjnl/72/Suppl_2/ii1.full.pdf, Honda JR, Knight V, Chan ED. The Haemophilus influenzae type b and influenza vaccines are important because they protect the immune system from being weakened by viruses that can pave the way for opportunistic bacterial infections (2, 4, 5). Although rare, bacterial bronchitis can occur after a viral respiratory infection has weakened the immune system, but is most likely to occur in the case of an outbreak (3, 4). A liquid or solid medium is a liquid or gel designed to support the growth of microorganisms like bacteria. The epidemiology and risk factors for postoperative pneumonia. More than 120 species of mycobacteria have been identified that can cause disease in humans. Treatment depends on the setting in which pneumonia was acquired and usually includes antibiotics and support for difficulty breathing (2, 4). Additional species that can cause infection in humans include M. abscessus, M. kansasii, M. fortuitum, M. xenopi, M. malmoense, M. szulgai, and M. simiae. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. For children, the elderly and people with compromised immune systems call for emergency help -- better safe than sorry. Individuals with certain immune defects, including interferon gamma receptor deficiencies, auto-antibodies to interferon gamma, STAT-1 deficiency and GATA2 deficiency also have increased risk of developing NTM, including disseminated disease. A complication of pneumonia is empyema, where the lungs fill with pus. In most cases, a lung biopsy is not necessary for a diagnosis of NTM infection. Symptoms of this type of condition frequently include an increased production of mucus, often leading to chest congestion. 2006;129:1653-1672. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16778288. Respiration. B., ed. Several lung diseases, such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, chronic bronchitis and asthma, are/can be caused by bacteria. According to a 2011 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, pneumonia is the 8th leading cause of death in America, sharing a spot with the flu (1) 1. Bacterial infection of bronchi and lung can occur due to bacterium such as clamydia pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumoniae, streptococcus pneumoniae 1, haemophilus influenzae 1, and bordetella pertussis (whooping cough), especially in children.Majority of the cases of acute bacterial bronchitis start as viral bronchitis. There are additional measures that can be taken to help treat individuals with NTM infection. More than 120 species of mycobacteria have been identified that can cause disease in humans. Chin J. Fever reducing medications are given as necessary and antibiotics are prescribed if bacteria is discovered or in the case of a known outbreak (3, 4). Flavimonas oryzihabitans infection. The pneumococcal vaccine can help protect against streptococcus-related pneumonia ( 2, 4, 5). Parasitic infections of the lung occur worldwide among both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients and may affect the respiratory system in a variety of ways. (For more information on these disorders, choose the specific disorder name as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.). The presence of a rare bacterial infection plus COVID-19 was described for the first time in a young bronchiectasis patient with vitamin D3 deficiency, a case study reported.. However, in some people no predisposing or risk factor can be identified. The upper respiratory tract may become susceptible to bacterial infection as a result of health conditions such as allergies and viral infections, as well as the effects of smoking and airborne environmental pollutants. doi:10.14740/jocmr3002w, Garin N, Marti C, Scheffler M, Stirnemann J, Prendki V. Computed tomography scan contribution to the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. Haemophilus influenzae. 2014;6:210-220. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24624285 Mirsaeidi M, Farshidpour M, Ebrahimi G, Aliberti S, Falkinham JO. The reason for this variability is not fully understood. Infections caused by bacteria are called bacterial infections. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. Treatment should be continued for 12 months after sputum cultures change from positive for infection to negative. Treatment of slowly growing mycobacteria. There are different predisposing factors for the different forms and species of NTM. NTM infections have traditionally been classified into rapidly growing and slowly growing mycobacteria. Bacterial infections in the lung leading to pneumonia are a major cause of death in the young, elderly, immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients. The less severe form is known as nodular bronchiectasis, in which the airways of the lungs become damaged, and subsequently dilate and become scarred. However, these drugs carry certain risks (side effects) and are often poorly tolerated, have a high cost, and require individuals to remain on the medications for a lengthy period of time. Secondary bacterial infections associated with influenza pandemics. Most people do not become sick when exposed to these germs. In 2018, Arikayce (amikacin liposome inhalation suspension) was approved for the treatment of lung disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria in a limited population of patients with the disease who do not respond to conventional treatment. Mayo Clinic. A trained medical professional will give a diagnosis of pneumonia after a medical history review, physical examination and X-ray and may need to test blood or sputum to see which bacteria is causing illness (2, 4). Many lung diseases caused by bacterial and viral infections respond to antibiotics and antivirals. Rarely, lung infections can be caused by fungi such as Pneumocystis jirovecii, Aspergillus, or Histoplasma capsulatum. In some individuals, the disease will present as a single or multiple small masses in the lungs (single or multiple pulmonary nodules) or as hypersensitivity pneumonitis, a condition characterized by inflammation of the lungs after being exposed to NTM. As with other sources of infection, bacteria can cause inflammation in the lungs -- pneumonia -- or in the trachea and its branches -- bronchitis, although most cases of bronchitis tend to be viral (2, 3, 4). 2014;25:356-363. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4067452/, Kartalija M, Ovrutsky AR, Bryan CL, et al. British Thoracic Society Guidelines for the Management of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease (NTM-PD). Bacterial pulmonary infections usually occur during the first week after surgery and include common pathogens, such as gram-negative bacteria. The most common are Mycobacterium avium complex or MAC. ERJ Open Res. Treatment depends on the setting in which pneumonia was acquired and usually includes antibiotics and support for difficulty breathing (2, 4). National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) 55 Kenosia Ave., Danbury CT 06810 • (203)744-0100. The second presentation is known as cavitary disease, in which scarring (fibrosis) or cavities form in the lungs (cavitation) particularly in the upper lobes of the lungs. Disseminated NTM infection occurs almost entirely in individuals whose immune system’s ability to fight infection is severely compromised or absent (immunocompromised individuals). 2017;94(3):299-311. doi:10.1159/000479089, Komiya K, Ishii H, Kadota J. Healthcare-associated Pneumonia and Aspiration Pneumonia. A trained medical professional will give a diagnosis of pneumonia after a medical history review, physical examination and X-ray and may need to test blood or sputum to see which bacteria is causing illness (2, 4). 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